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  • Table of embodied energy or primary energy of materials. Enrique ...

    ENERGY. Table of embodied energy or primary energy of materials. Enrique Azpilicueta. Enrique Azpilicueta. This includes the energy consumed by the extraction of the raw materials, manufacture, transformation, associated transportation, installation, maintenance and disposal. It does not include the energy used in the...

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  • Sustainable Non-Metallic Building Materials - MDPI

    Jan 27, 2010 ... the world consumes: 25% of the global wood harvest; 40% of stone, sand and gravel; and 16% of water. ... The results presented by Thormark indicate that embodied energy in traditional building ..... concrete aggregate (RCA); crushed blast furnace slag; sand; brick; glass; granulated plastics; waste.

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  • Embodied energy - Wikipedia

    Embodied energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or ''embodied'' in the product itself. The concept can be useful in determining the effectiveness of energy-producing or energy-saving devices, or the "real" replacement cost of a building,...

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  • A case study about embodied energy in concrete and ... - SciELO

    reaching 0.0050 GJ.ton-2. Table 1. Embodied energy to selected building materials*. Self-Elaboration. Source: see items 3.3.1 to 3.3.12. Description. Distance to site (in km). Density. (in kg.m-3). Embodied energy (in. GJ.ton-2). Cement. 15. 1500. 6.0. Lime. 150. 1500. 5.6. Sand. 40. 1500. 0.0285. Crushed stone. 18. 1500.

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  • Embodied Energy in Concrete and Structural Masonry on Typical ...

    Embodied energy (in. GJ)*. %. 1. Foundation beams and structure; includes structural masonry mortars. 243.81. 28.55. 1.1. Concrete - 70.5 m3. 1.1.1. Cement. 22.207. 133.25. 1.1.2. Sand. 59.389. 1.69. 1.1.3. Crushed stone. 75.379. 9.48. 1.1.4. Water. 16.269. 0.05. 1.1.5. Concrete-production and application. 176.250. 2.56.

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  • aggregate carbon demand: the hunt for low ... - EIG Conferences

    One means of assessing environmental impact is to determine the ''embodied energy'' used (or ''embodied CO2'' emitted) to produce aggregate ... crushed rock, sand and gravel, ready mixed concrete, asphalt and cement. The leading ... used to produce construction aggregate such as basalt, dolerite, granite and sandstone.

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  • Embodied Energy - Aggregates Manager

    May 1, 2009 ... You will be happy to hear that aggregates actually have a fairly low embodied energy. According to folks from the Centre for Building Performance Research in New Zealand, the average embodied energy, in kilowatt hours per ton, is 8 for gravel and 16 for crushed stone. For comparison, there are 750...

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  • Embodied Energy and its impact on Architectural Decisions

    This paper examines embodied energy of the most dominant building materials/components such as cement, steel, and aluminium and assesses the source of the .... that is separated in smelting), used as roadstone, and steelmaking slags that are ground and used in cement, or crushed and used as a concrete aggregate.

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  • Sustainable materials for low carbon buildings | International ...

    Jul 19, 2009 ... Some statistics on the Indian construction sector regarding materials produced in bulk quantities and the energy implications are discussed. Examples of low embodied energy materials are provided. An analysis of total embodied energy in conventional and alternative building systems shows nearly 50%...

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  • Earth Materials

    Depending on the stone type, it can be used for structural block, facing block, pavers, and crushed stone. Most brick plants are located near ... Rammed earth and caliche block can be used for structural walls, and offer great potential as low-cost material alternatives with low embodied energy. In addition, such materials are...

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